Nigerian Geographical Information – Overview

Nigeria, officially addressed as the Federal Republic of Nigeria is the most populous country on the African continent. She is located on the west of Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea in the south, the Republic of Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north. Since 1991, its capital has been the centrally located city of Abuja, although the Nigerian government was previously headquartered in Lagos.

 Geographic coordinates:

100 N, 80 E

 Land boundaries:

Total: 4,047 km

Coastline: 853 km

Border countries: Benin 773 km, Cameroon 1,690 km, Chad 87 km, Niger 1,497 km


Total area: 923,768 sq km

Land: 910,768 sq km

Water: 13,000 sq km

Coastline: 853 km

Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation


The climate varies across the country. The country has an equatorial climate in the south, tropical in the central region, and arid in the north.


Southern lowlands merge into central hills and plateaus, mountains in the southeast, plains in the north.

Elevation extremes:

Lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
Highest point: Chappal Waddi 2,419 m

Natural resources:

Petroleum, tin, columbite, iron ore, coal, limestone, lead, zinc, natural gas, hydropower, arable land, etc.

Land use:

Arable land: 31.29%
Permanent crops: 2.96%
Others: 65.75% (2001)

Irrigated land: 2,330 sq km

Natural Hazards:

Periodic droughts and flooding.

Environmental issues:

Soil Degradation, rapid deforestation, urban air and water pollution, desertification; droughts in the north severely affecting marginal agricultural activities, oil pollution; water, air, and soil has suffered serious damage from oil spills, loss of arable land due to rapid urbanization,

Environment – international agreements:

Party to: Biodiversity, Climate change, Desertification, Endangered species, Hazardous wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements.